Effects of ozone on plants, January 1985 - April 1993

by Beane, Kathie.

Publisher: National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Md

Written in English
Published: Pages: 34 Downloads: 819
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Subjects:

  • Plants, Effect of ozone on -- Bibliography.

Edition Notes

StatementKathie Beane.
SeriesQuick bibliography series,, QB 93-48, Quick bibliography series ;, 93-48.
ContributionsNational Agricultural Library (U.S.)
Classifications
LC ClassificationsQH545.O94 B44 1993
The Physical Object
Pagination34 p. ;
Number of Pages34
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL1046808M
LC Control Number93247408

  To tease out the overall effects of the gases on plant production, Sitch and his colleagues modeled the effects of human-caused rising ozone and carbon dioxide levels on plant production. Plant Growth. Initial greenwood cuttings of hybrid poplar (Populus maximowizii × Populus trichocarpa) that had previously been designated as ozone sensitive (clone ) or ozone tolerant (clone ), based on visible lesion formation in response to a single acute dose of ozone (Wood and Coppolino, ), were obtained from E. Pell (The Pennsylvania State University, University Park).   The ozone layer is a layer of ozone gas that is located in the stratosphere, approximately 6 to 10 miles ( km) above the Earth’s surface, and is estimated to extend up approximately 30 miles (50 km). The ozone layer protects the Earth and all of its living creatures from the sun’s ultraviolet B .   Vegetation has a strong effect on climate through regulating energy, water, and carbon cycles at multiple scales (McPherson ).The ability of a plant to regulate leaf water loss in most situations is simply controlled by stomatal behavior (Cowan and Thoughto ); however, the rate of plant carbon assimilation or photosynthesis is jointly controlled by both stomatal function and.

Phytotoxic effects of ozone are described with emphasis on secondary plant metabolism. Numerous ozone-induced genes, enzymes and stress metabolites of antioxidative and phytopathological defense reactions have been discovered for herbaceous plants and forest tree species. Ozone induces reactions normally elicited by viral and microbial pathogens. The molecular basis (receptors, signal chains.   It kills everything at high levels. If you're worried about the effects on your living space, you can get badges that will monitor toxic/harmful levels and alert you if you've hit a unhealthy threshold. Ozone generators are a great tool, there are many uses for. Ozone will harm your plants at . Plant breeders have generally screened for toxins that are typical of the plant group from which a crop was domesticated and have excluded plants that have high concentrations of the compounds. Unintended changes in the concentrations of secondary metabolites can result from conventional breeding (Sinden and Webb, ; Hellenas et al., ).   The neutralizing effect of the reactive molecules eliminates most of the plants’ odor, leaving the bud with impaired taste. Instead, the de-odorizers should be placed in the ventilation to outdoors, or in a space or spaces adjacent to the growing space, so that any odor which escapes the area is neutralized.

  The and Antarctic ozone "holes" were the most severe on record; in some areas, stratospheric ozone was depleted by more than 99%. Researchers believe, however, that these depletions were due at least in part to the eruption of the Mount Pinatubo volcano in Ozone is an elemental molecule with formula O3. An explosive, pale blue gas (b.p. ℃) that has a characteristic, pleasant odour, it is continuously produced in the upper atmosphere by the action of solar ultraviolet radiation on atmospheric is an antimicrobial agent used in the production of bottled water, as well as in the treatment of meat, poultry and other foodstuffs.

Effects of ozone on plants, January 1985 - April 1993 by Beane, Kathie. Download PDF EPUB FB2

The ozone component of global change: Potential effects on agricultural and horticultural plant yield, product quality and interactions with invasive species.

Journal of Integrative Plant Biology Fiscus, EL, FL Booker, KO Burkey. Crop responses to ozone: uptake, modes of action, carbon assimilation and partitioning. documented impacts on soils, biota and ecological processes. The effects of O 3 on individual plants and processes scale up through the ecosystem through effects on car-bon, nutrient and hydrologic dynamics.

Ozone effects on individual species and their associated microflora and fauna cascade through the ecosystem to the landscape by: Abstract. Ambient levels of ozone (O 3) air pollution are sufficient to directly reduce plant growth and decreases photosynthesis, or carbon (C) gain, and causes cellular injury, which increases C costs for repair and maintenance; less C is then available for allocation to growth and reproduction (Koziol & Whatley, ; Guderian et al., ; Reich & Amundson, ; Amthor, ).Cited by: 9.

Plants grown in CO2-enriched air nearly always exhibit increased photosynthetic rates and biomass production relative to plants grown at the current ambient CO2 concentration.

In contrast, plants exposed to elevated ozone concentrations typically display reductions in photosynthesis and growth in comparison with plants grown at the current ambient ozone concentration.

and the effects of ozone depl eting chemicals (ODCs). also marked the first discover y of the Antar ctic ozone hole. On the basis of the Vienna Convention, the Montreal.

critical considerations about the effects of ozone on plant -patho g en interactions. Introduction While direct effects of air pollution on crop yield is now well know, the indirect effects of pollution on plants due to its influence on plant diseases are still difficult to evaluate (Kangasjärvi et al., ).

The air pollutants impact on crop. Harris, M. J., and Bailey-Serres, J. Ozone effects on gene expression and molecular approaches to breeding for air pollution resistance. In: A. Singh Basra (Ed.), Stress-induced gene expression in plants (pp–).

Singapore: Harwood Academic. Google Scholar. Ozone can have deleterious effects on the physiological function and productivity of a wide range of plant species, including agricultural crops, conifers, hardwoods, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and lichens.

Elevated ambient ozone concentrations in the troposphere (the portion of the a-t. CO2 concentrations in the Earth’s atmosphere will rise to between and μL L–1 by (IPCC ).

In much of the world, ozone (O3) is the air pollutant most likely to be having adverse effects on the growth of plants. Here we describe the impacts of CO2 and O3 episodes (rising to nL L–1), singly and in mixtures on the growth and physiology of an interamerican hybrid poplar. Environmental Pollution 77 () ~ji1~'~" ~/ Influence of ozone air pollution on plant- herbivore interactions.

Part 2: Effects of ozone on feeding preference, growth and consumption rates of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) M. Bolsinger,* M. Lier~ & P. Hughes Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University, Tower Road, Ithaca, New York.

1. Introduction. Exposure to elevated atmospheric concentrations of ozone has a harmful influence on crop development and final yield (Heagle, ).Tropospheric ozone is currently the most important phytotoxic air pollutant in the Northern Hemisphere (Ashmore and Bell, ).Plants exposed to ozone show reduced photosynthesis (Reich and Amundson, ) and premature senescence.

treatment plants from April 1 through Octo Equipment performance characteristics were evaluated during the disinfection season and consequently, disinfection performance was optimized during the season.

The capital cost of both ozone systems represented about 8% of the plants' total construction cost. The ozone system’s. The effect of ozone on plants depends upon the concen-tration of ozone and the duration of the exposure.

Chronic exposures to low levels of ozone result in decline of photo-synthesis, growth inhibition and premature senescence, nor-mally without visible damage to plant tissues (Krupa ). Tropospheric ozone (O 3) is a harmful air pollutant that can negatively impact plant growth and t O 3 concentrations ([O 3]) decrease forest productivity and crop yields and future [O 3] will likely increase if current emission rates r, the specific effects of elevated [O 3] on reproductive development, a critical stage in the plant's lifecycle, have not been.

April ; Tree Physiology Published information about the effects of ozone on plants and ecosystems is synthesized into a conceptual model to explain the response of evergreen conifers.

Ozone effects on natural vegetation have been documented throughout the country, especially in many areas of the eastern U.S. and in California. Ozone gardens are one way that national parks are studying ozone effects on vegetation in collaboration with students and community groups.

areas and it has adverse effects on human health as well as plants. Ozone is a molecule of oxygen which may be beneficial or harmful to human health and the environment depending on many vari-ables. Ozone is more commonly known for its beneficial function of blocking ultra violet radiation from the sun, which is found in the stratosphere.

Treating ozone injured plants won’t correct the damage that is already done, but it can help the plant produce new, healthy foliage and help prevent diseases and insects that normally attack weak and injured plants. Ozone Plant Damage. There are a number of symptoms associated with ozone plant damage.

Ozone first damages foliage that is. Ozone depletion consists of two related events observed since the late s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion. The effects of ozone on carbon balance and growth of individual plants can be quantified on the basis of concentration, external dose (concentration × duration of exposure), or uptake.

For an equivalent dose within a single growing season, agricultural crops are the most sensitive to ozone, with hardwoods intermediate and conifers least sensitive. Some plants keep their stomata open all night. Results reported by Winner et al.

() also indicate that plants can be sensitive to O3 at night. Matyssek et al. () reported that nighttime exposures to O3 reduced the whole-plant production in one birch clone. It is difficult to general-ize across all plant species and thus, the inherent. Penn State researchers have identified how ozone, a major smog constituent, affects the microscopic breathing pores on plants' leaves, a process that may figure in the estimated $3 billion in.

Ozone in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) is toxic to human beings and many species of plants, causing harm without visible symptoms.

The Ozone We Breathe focuses chiefly on the ozone's effects on human respiratory health and and the productivity of agricultural crops. Ozone Effects on Health and Plants.

Ozone or trioxygen (O3) is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic O2. Ground-level ozone is an air pollutant with harmful effects on the respiratory systems of animals.

Harmful effects on vegetation were discovered as early as s and now ozone is considered to be one of the most phytotoxic air pollutants. Not all negative effects of ozone are as easily observed as the leaf damage on the plants in our gardens.

A reduction in plant growth and changes in chemical composition take place, too. Recognizing Ozone Effects to Vegetation in a Simple Way International Society of Environmental Botanists, Vol. 10 No. 2 - April Photo-oxidants, and especially ozone, have been widely regarded as harmful to vegetation since the 80’s, although in the 60’s its effects were already detected in California.

Excess Ozone Chokes Plants. the use of ozone sensitive plants with the Surface Ozone Protocol is a natural extension to taking surface ozone measurements for the GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Program.

Irene was educated at Keene State. Advancements in techniques to rapidly and non-destructively detect the impact of tropospheric ozone (O 3) on crops are study demonstrates the capability of full-range (– nm) reflectance spectroscopy to characterize responses of asymptomatic sage leaves under an acute O 3 exposure ( ppb for 5 h).

Using partial least squares regression, spectral models were developed. Well before the expected stratospheric ozone layer recovery date ofozone's effects on climate may become the main driver of ozone loss in the stratosphere. As a result, ozone recovery may not be complete until or Ozone's impact on climate consists primarily of changes in temperature.

• Ozone effects on plants are initiated in leaves when the gas enters through the stomates and disrupts cellular processes, resulting in suppression of growth and yield of many crops. Non-stomatal ozone deposition may be large, but its phytotoxic effects are likely small although effects on epicuticular wax and subsequent interactions between.

We review visible injury to plants exposed to ozone, the physiological effects of ozone on vegetation, growth responses of plants, mechanisms of ozone response, and the interaction of ozone and CO2.

To the extent ozone reduces growth, it affects the amount of carbon in vegetation and soils, and the harvestable portions of crops.3 plants, in which a doubling of the CO 2 level has been shown to increase vegetative growth with an average of 41% (data on species, Poorter ) and 47% (data on species, Poorter et al.

). The growth response varied considerably, both between and within spe-cies. For example, in wheat the increase in vegetative growth.The Earth has experienced a constantly changing climate in the time since plants first evolved.

In comparison to the present day, this history has seen Earth as cooler, warmer, drier and wetter, and CO 2 (carbon dioxide) concentrations have been both higher and lower.

These changes have been reflected by constantly shifting vegetation, for example forest communities dominating most areas in.